- Cyber Security
Major CPU architectures for computer processors
ARM, originally Acorn RISC Machine, later Advanced RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments. British company ARM Holdings develops the architecture and licenses it to other companies, who design their own products that implement one of those architectures—including systems-on-chips (SoC) and systems-on-modules (SoM) that incorporate memory, interfaces, radios, etc. It also designs cores that implement this instruction set and licenses these designs to a number of companies that incorporate those core designs into their own products.
Processors that have a RISC architecture typically require fewer transistors than those with a complex instruction set computing (CISC) architecture (such as the x86 processors found in most personal computers), which improves cost, power consumption, and heat dissipation. These characteristics are desirable for light, portable, battery-powered devices—including smartphones, laptops and tablet computers, and other embedded systems. For supercomputers, which consume large amounts of electricity, ARM could also be a power-efficient solution.
Microchip Technology is an American manufacturer of microcontroller, memory and analog semiconductors. Its products include microcontrollers (PICmicro, dsPIC / PIC24, PIC32, AVR, AVR32 and SAM), Serial EEPROM devices, Serial SRAM devices, KEELOQ devices, radio frequency (RF) devices, thermal, power and battery management analog devices, as well as linear, interface and mixed signal devices. Some of the interface devices include USB, ZigBee/MiWi, Controller Area Network, LoRa, SIGFOX and Ethernet.
Intel's 8051 architecture, Intel Corporation (also known as Intel, stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California (colloquially referred to as "Silicon Valley") that was founded by Gordon Moore (of Moore's law fame) and Robert Noyce. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip makers based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung, and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, and Dell. Intel also manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing.
Texas Instruments's MSP430 architecture, Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.Headquartered in Dallas, Texas, United States, TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume. Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 85% of their revenue.TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors. To date, TI has more than 43,000 patents worldwide.
Zilog's Z80 architecture, Zilog, Inc., previously known as ZiLOG, is an American manufacturer of 8-bit and 16-bit microcontrollers. Its most famous product is the Z80 series, 8-bit microprocessors that were compatible with the Intel 8080 but less expensive to use. The Z80 was widely used during the 1980s in many popular home computers such as the TRS-80 and the ZX81. Both 16- and 32-bit processors were also produced by the company, but these did not see widespread use. From the 1990s the company focused primarily on the microcontroller market.
MIPS is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)developed by MIPS Technologies (formerly MIPS Computer Systems). The early MIPS architectures were 32-bit, with 64-bit versions added later. There are multiple versions of MIPS: including MIPS I, II, III, IV, and V; as well as five releases of MIPS32/64 (for 32- and 64-bit implementations, respectively). As of April 2017, the current version is MIPS32/64 Release 6. MIPS32/64 primarily differs from MIPS I–V by defining the privileged kernel mode System Control Coprocessor in addition to the user mode architecture.
GXemul (formerly known as mips64emul) is a computer architecture emulator being developed by Anders Gavare. It is available as free software under a revised BSD-style license. In 2005, Gavare changed the name of the software project from mips64emul to GXemul. This was to avoid giving the impression that the emulator was confined to the MIPS architecture, which was the only architecture being emulated initially.
Although development of the emulator is still a work-in-progress, since 2004 it has been stable enough to let various unmodified guest operating systems run as if they were running on real hardware. Currently emulated processor architectures include ARM, MIPS, M88K, PowerPC, and SuperH. Guest operating systems that have been verified to work inside the emulator are NetBSD, OpenBSD, Linux, HelenOS, Ultrix, and Sprite.
PowerPC (a backronym for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computer instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been named Power ISA, while the old name naturally lives on, as a legacy trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture based processors, and in software package identifiers.
SuperH (or SH) is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hitachi and currently produced by Renesas. It is implemented by microcontrollers and microprocessors for embedded systems.
As of 2015, many of the original patents for the SuperH architecture are expiring and the SH2 CPU has been reimplemented as open source hardware under the name J2.
The 88000 (m88k for short) is a RISC instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Motorola. The 88000 was Motorola's attempt at a home-grown RISC architecture, started in the 1980s. The 88000 arrived on the market some two years after the competing SPARC and MIPS. Due to the late start and extensive delays releasing the second-generation MC88110, the m88k achieved very limited success outside of the MVME platform and embedded controller environments.
Atmel's AVR architecture,Atmel Corporation is an American-based designer and manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in 1984. The company focuses on embedded systems built around microcontrollers. Its products include microcontrollers (8-bit AVR, 32-bit AVR, 32-bit ARM-based, automotive grade, and 8-bit Intel 8051 derivatives) radio frequency (RF) devices including Wi-Fi, EEPROM, and flash memory devices, symmetric and asymmetric security chips, touch sensors and controllers, and application-specific products. Atmel supplies its devices as standard products, application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), or application-specific standard product (ASSPs) depending on the requirements of its customers.