Cryptography

Cryptography

Cryptography is the art and science of protecting information from undesirable individuals by converting it into a form non-recognizable by its attackers while stored and transmitted. Data cryptography mainly is the scrambling of the content of data, such as text, image, audio, video and so forth to make the data unreadable, invisible or unintelligible during transmission or storage called Encryption. The main goal of cryptography is keeping data secure form unauthorized attackers. The reverse of data encryption is data Decryption,

In modern days cryptography is no longer limited to secure sensitive military information but recognized as one of the major components of the security policy of any organization and considered industry standard for providing information security, trust, controlling access to resources, and electronic financial transactions. 

There are two encryption/decryption key types: In some of encryption technologies when two end points need to communicate with one another via encryption, they must use the same algorithm, and in the most of the time the same key, and in other encryption technologies, they must use different but related keys for encryption and decryption purposes. Cryptography algorithms are either symmetric algorithms, which use symmetric keys (also called secret keys), or asymmetric algorithms, which use asymmetric keys (also called public and private keys)

In Cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. When encrypting, a block cipher might take a 128-bit block of plaintext as input, and outputs a corresponding 128-bit block of cipher text. The exact transformation is controlled using a second input — the secret key. Decryption is similar: the decryption algorithm takes, in this example, a 128-bit block of cipher

text together with the secret key, and yields the original 128-bit block of plaintext. To encrypt messages longer than the block size, a mode of operation is used. Block ciphers can be contrasted with stream ciphers; a stream cipher operates on individual digits one at a time and the transformation varies during the encryption. The distinction between the two types is not always clear-cut: a block cipher, when used in certain modes of operation, acts effectively as a stream cipher.

An early and highly popular block cipher design is the Data Encryption Standard (DES). The (DES) is a cipher Selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. The algorithm was initially controversial, with classified design elements, a relatively short key length, and suspicions about a National Security Agency (NSA) backdoor. DES consequently came under intense academic scrutiny, and motivated the modern understanding of block ciphers and their cryptanalysis.  

DES is now considered to be insecure for many applications. This is chiefly due to the 56-bit key size being too small; DES keys have been broken in less than 24 hours. There are also some analytical results which demonstrate theoretical weaknesses in the cipher, although they are infeasible to mount in practice. The algorithm is believed to be practically secure in the form of Triple DES, although there are theoretical attacks. In recent years, the cipher has been superseded by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

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